Drafting Style Manual

Appendix A


Avoid the use of the following redundant couplets
alter and change
any and all
authorize and direct
authorize and empower
by and with
desire and require
each and all
each and every
final and conclusive
from and after
full and complete
full force and effect
made and entered into
means and includes
necessary or desirable
null and void
order and direct
over and above
power and authority
shall have and exercise
sole and exclusive
type and kind
unless and until


Avoid the following indefinite words
aforementioned
aforesaid
and/or (say “A” or “B,”or both)
before (as an adjective)
before-mentioned
hereafter
hereby
herein
hereinabove
hereinafter
heretofore
herewith
said (as a substitute for “it,” “he,” “she,” etc.)
same (as a substitute for “it,” “he,” “she,” etc.)
thereof
thereto
therewith
to wit
whatsoever
whensoever
wheresoever
whosoever


Do Not Say

Say
absolutely null and void and of no effect void
accorded given
adequate number of enough
adjudged, ordered, and decreed adjudged
admit of allow
afforded given
among and between among (if more than two things or persons are involved); between (if two or more things are involved but are treated individually
approximately about
at the place where
at the same time when
at the time when
attempt (as a verb) try
calculate compute
category kind, class, group
cause it to be done have it done
cease stop
commence, institute start, begin
complete (as a verb) finish
conceal hide
consequence result
constitute and appoint appoint
contiguous to next to
corporation organized and existing under the laws of New Jersey a New Jersey corporation
do and perform do
does not operate to does not
donate give
during such time as while
during the course of during
endeavor (as a verb) try
enter into a contract with to contract with
evidence, documentary and otherwise evidence
evince show
except that but
excessive number of too many
expiration end
fail, refuse, and neglect fail
feasible possible
for the duration of during or while
for the purpose of holding (or other gerund) to hold (or comparable infinitive)
for the reason that because
forthwith immediately
frequently often
from July 1, 1971 after June 30, 1971
full and adequate or full and complete full
hereafter after this…takes effect
heretofore before this…takes effect
however or provided if, unless, (or state the condition)
in a case in which when, where
in case if
indicate (in the sense of show) show
inquire ask
institute begin, start
interrogate question
in the case of whenever (only when emphasizing the exhausting or recurring applicability to the proposition)
in the event that if
in the interest of for
is able to can
is applicable (shall be) applies
is authorized and directed shall
is authorized to may
is binding upon binds
is directed shall
is entitled (in the sense of has the name) is called
is unable to cannot
it is the duty shall
it shall be lawful to may
law passed law enacted
manner way
maximum most, largest, greatest
minimum least, smallest
modify change
negotiate (in the sense of enter into a contract) make
no later than June 30, 1971 before July 1, 1971
nor or (do not misuse “nor,” “for,” “or” after a negative expression)
obtain get
occasion (as a verb) cause
of a technical nature technical
on and after July 1, 1971 after June 30, 1971
on his or her own application at his or her own request
on or before June 30, 1971 before July 1, 1971
on the part of by
or, in the alternative or
party of the first part (the party’s name)
per annum per year
per centum percent
period of time period, time
portion part
possessed have or had
preserve keep
prior or prior to earlier or before
proceed go, go ahead
procure obtain, get
prosecute its business carry on its business
provided that if, unless, or but
provision of law law
purchase (as a verb) buy
remainder rest
render (in the sense of give) give
render (in the sense of cause to be) make
require (in the sense of need) need
retain keep
specified (in the sense of expressly mentioned or listed) named
state of Kansas Kansas
subsequent later
subsequent to after
successfully completes or passes completes or passes
suffer (in the sense of permit) permit
sufficient number of enough
summon send for, call
the Congress Congress
the manner in which how
to the effect that that
under the provisions under
until such time as until
utilize, employ (in the sense of use) use
when if
where in which
within or without the United States inside or outside the United States
with reference to for
with the object of changing (or other gerund) to change (or comparative infinitive)